Lesson 6: Imamah

 

 

In the Name of God

Based on the words of: Masoud Basiti

Collected By: Zahra Moradi

Translated By: Ali Mansouri

   

Over the course of "Who Are The Shia And What Do They Say?", we will examine the advent of Shi’ism, discuss the foundations of Shia belief, and present authentic Islam.

   

Lesson 6: Imamah

In the previous lesson, we spoke about Nubuwwah, and that the Shia believe that sent 124,000 of His greatest, most honest, and most trustable servants as messengers and guides to the people, to show them the way towards salvation and guidance. Someone that accepts Tawhid, and that the One God is completely unique, will understand that because there is no way to understand or perceive God, human beings need representatives from Him. This is so that their marifat towards Him does not go astray, and that they can know what their Creator wants from them, what behavior will lead to their prosperity, and what things will lead to their destruction.

Similarly, we discussed how to recognize the truthfulness of a claimant to Prophethood, and the goals of the Prophets. At the end of the lesson, we took a detailed look at the last Prophet, Muhammad (PBUH), and gave some examples of the glad tidings of his coming given by previous Messengers. Then, we reached these questions, “Did God leave the chain of guidance unfinished after His last Messenger? Did the Seal of the Prophets not designate a successor, as was the custom of the previous Prophets?”

In this lesson, we will analyze the fourth principle of Shi’ism, Imamah, to answer this question.

   

The Fourth Principle of Shia Belief: Imamah

The word Imamah comes from the root Imam, meaning leader, guardian, or the person that a group of people follow[1]. Thus the word Imamah contains both the concepts of leadership and following.

The Shia believe the God Almighty did not leave humanity without any guide or guardian after the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Rather, He chose twelve of His best servants as “Imams” to be successors to his final Prophet. Accepting their guardianship and following their words is obligatory, just like accepting the Prophet and following the word of God. This belief is one of the five principles of the Shia and called Imamah.

   

Aql Based Reasons for Believing in the Imams

What rational leader would not designate a successor for themselves while they are gone?

Which sympathetic teacher would not assign a substitute while they are absent?

Which wise guardian would leave those under their care as wandering and helpless after themselves?

How could it be that the Seal of the Prophets, who was the wisest, most Aqel, and sympathetic leader for his people and had spent years struggling to guide and nurture them, leave his Ummah (nation) alone without designating a suitable, trustable guardian and guide for them?

This does not only apply to the Seal of the Prophets. All previous Prophets followed the custom of designating a trustable successor to themselves and introducing them to the people. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) similarly acted in accordance to the Aql, and clearly presented his successor to the people before he passed away[2].

The need for human beings to have Messengers from God to wake up their fitra, grow their Aql, feed them the correct marifat of the One God, interpret God’s word, and correct distortions in religion did not go away with the completion of the sending of messengers.

Does the completion of the chain of Prophethood without not cut off the guidance of the Children of Adam? Will the mission of the Prophets not be incomplete?

This is why God the Most Wise states that He did not leave the people of any era without a guide,

وَ لِكُلِّ قَوْمٍ هادٍ[3]

And for every people there is a guide.

God ordered His last prophet to show the people the guides that come after him. God stated that if he did not do this, his Prophethood will not have been completed! [4]

Thus, just like in previous eras, the best, most knowledgeable, most just, and most sympathetic individuals for attending to the people’s affairs, both relating to this world and the afterlife, were the Prophets and their successors. After the Seal of the Prophets, there came Imams that were chosen by God as divine guides, caring coaches, and mediators of differences.

It is obvious that the Word of God, sayings of the Prophet, and biography of the Prophet cannot be be a comprehensive solution for people in all affairs by themselves. This is because,

-    Firstly, just as the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) stated, there was not enough time during the 23 years of his Prophethood to explain everything the people needed in detail and give a complete explanation and interpretation of every single verse of the Quran[5].

-    Secondly, the fact that there are multiple disagreements among different people about the meaning and interpretation of the Words of God and His Prophet shows that people cannot, by themselves, reach a definitive, correct answer to all questions using only the Quran and remaining words of the Prophet.

Thus, there needs to be a mediator that is connected to the source of revelation, possesses knowledge of the Quran, and just like the Prophet, is looking after the salvation of humanity, to solve these problems.

   

Narration Based Reasons for Believing in the Imams

Other than the Aql based reasons for believing in the Imams, there are numerous verses and narrations that clearly state that accepting the Imams and following them is a Divine Order.

            Verses from the Holy Quran that state the Necessity of Believing in Imamah

o   The Verse of Obeying the Ulil Amr

یا أَیُّهَا الَّذینَ آمَنُوا أَطیعُوا اللَّهَ وَ أَطیعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَ أُولِی الْأَمْرِ مِنْکُم[6]

Oh you who believe, obey God and obey the Messenger and the Ulil Amr among you.

In this verse, God orders the believers to obey the Ulil Amr, meaning “holders of authority”, in addition to obeying God and the Messenger. Since the phrase Ulil Amir comes immediately after “Messenger”, the same unconditional obedience that applies to the Messenger of God, also applies to the Ulil Amr. But who are these holders of authority that have been approved in this way by God, and that the people have been ordered to unconditionally obey?

Naturally, the people of the Prophet’s time would refer to the Prophet himself to understand the meaning of this verse, and would ask him what exactly God meant here? The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) clearly stated in response that the Ulil Amr were 12 successors after him and gave their names one by one[7].

Numerous narration from Sunni [8] and Shia [9]sources emphasize that Ulil Amr refers to the Imams that the Seal of the Prophets introduced as his successors.

Therefore, after the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), the people should obey the 12 successors that God appointed.

o   The Verse of Wilayat (Guardianship)

إِنَّما وَلِیُّکُمُ اللَّهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ الَّذینَ آمَنُوا الَّذینَ یُقیمُونَ الصَّلاةَ وَ یُؤْتُونَ الزَّکاةَ وَ هُمْ راکِعُون[10]

Verily your Guardian (Wali) is only God and His Messenger and those believers that establish prayer and give Zakat (charity) while they bow [in prayer]

This verse refers to an event in which the Imam Ali (AS) gave his ring to a desperate, needy person while he was praying, in ruku (the portion of the prayer when a believer bows down), so that the needy man did not leave the Mosque in a state of hopelessness.

Afterward, this verse was revealed and God the Most Wise once again showed the people the true and deserved Guardian after the Prophet.

All Shia [11] and many Sunni [12] commentators and scholars of hadith (narrations) have described the occasion of the revelation of this verse to be this action by Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) and identified him as the Guardian brought forth from God.

Thus, after the Seal of the Prophets, the guardianship of the people went to Imam Ali (AS) and the Divine Successors that came after him.

o   The Verse of Tabligh (Propogation)

یا أَیُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ ما أُنْزِلَ إِلَیْکَ مِنْ رَبِّکَ وَ إِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ فَما بَلَّغْتَ رِسالَتَهُ... ‏[13]

Oh Messenger, deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you will not have fulfilled your mission …

Just as is evident from the meaning of this verse, there is talk about the conveying of an important issue. Something that is so important that God tells His Messenger that if he does not say it after 23 years of struggling, his Mission will not be complete!

The context of the revelation of this verse related to the last days of the Prophet’s life. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) sent couriers that year in all directions to invite all Muslims, man, woman, old, young, Arab, non-Arab, white, and black to take part in the pilgrimage of Hajj in Mecca that. Muslims from every corner of the Islamic World answered the Prophet’s request, and a large crowd participated in the Hajj. After conducting these rites, the Prophet, as was ordered by God, asked the people to leave Mecca. Then, all the people, including those whose return journey was in the opposite direction (like the people of Yemen), and even the inhabitants of Mecca, joined the Prophet (PBUH)[14].

When they reached an area called Ghadir Khumm, God sent this verse, and told the Prophet to propagate what He has ordered to the people. The Prophet also asked everyone to stop, and said, “I have to give you an important message from God Almighty[15]. I am in the last days of my life[16]. God has ordered me to tell you that after me, Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS), and after Ali, 11 individuals from his progeny, will be your guardians and my successors. Obey them[17], help them[18], and do rise up in enmity against them [19] …”. Then he had every single person present pledge allegiance to Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) and the 11 Imams after him. He asked all those present to give this important message to those that were absent, and parents to tell their children, generation after generation[20].

This is why the Shia consider the verse,

بَلِّغْ ما أُنْزِلَ إِلَیْکَ مِنْ رَبِّکَ...[21]

to relate to the event of Ghadir and the introduction of Ali (AS) and his children as the successors to the Prophet[22]. In numerous books by Sunni scholars, whether about interpretation, hadith, or history, it has been emphasized that this verse was revealed about Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS)[23].

Therefore, the important matter, which if unsaid, would leave the Prophet’s mission as incomplete, was the issue of succession to the Prophet, which had been decided by God’s will.

o   The Verse of Ikmal al-Din (the Perfection of Religion)

الْیَوْمَ اَکْمَلْتُ لَکُمْ دِینَکُمْ وَ اَتْمَمْتُ عَلَیْکُمْ نِعْمَتِى وَ رَضِیتُ لَکُمُ الاِسْلامَ دِیناً... [24]

Today I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and chosen for you Islam as your religion.

This verse refers to an important event, which perfected God’s religion and completed His endless favors to His servants. But what is this event without which God’s religion would be incomplete?

According to the majority of Shia and Sunni Muslims, this verse was revealed on the Day of Ghadir Khumm[25], and was about the guardianship and successorship of Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS)[26].

Based on this verse, until the issue of the guardianship of the people after the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and the Imamah of the 12 Chosen Ones was not formally declared, God’s religion was not complete, and God the Merciful was not satisfied.

In addition to numerous verses about the necessity of the Imams, some of which were mentioned here, there are multiple narrations from the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in which he states that the Muslims have a duty to follow and obey the Imams after him (In Islam there is a distinction made between the words of the Prophet Muhammad, PBUH, known as hadith and the Quran, which is the direct word of God). Please refer to the following examples below:

   

Narrations from the Prophet that state the Necessity Believing in Imamah

o   The Narration of Wilayat (Guardianship)

“Verily Ali is from me and I am from Ali, and he is the Guardian of all the believers after me!” [27]

This narration shows that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) did not leave the people alone without a guardian. He clearly states Imam Ali (AS) is the guardian of the people after him.

The explanation about the closeness between Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) and the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is important. By saying, “Ali is from me and I am from Ali”, the Prophet (PBUH) has made is clear to everyone that Ali (AS) can, just like the Prophet, be an Aqel, just, wise, brave, kind, trustable, and honest guardian for the people. This narration is accepted by both Shia and Sunni Muslims[28].

o   The Narration of Khalifat (Successorship)

There are multiple narrations from the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in which he explicitly speaks about his successor. He introduced the first sucessor as Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS), said they will be 12 in number, their genealogy will be from the tribe of Quraysh (the same tribe as the Prophet, PBUH, himself), and in some cases, gave each one of their names. Below are a few examples,

*    “And you [oh Ali] will be my successor after me, among all the believers”[29].

*    “There will be 12 successors after me, all of whom will be from Quraysh[30].

*    “Verily, my successors and executors of my will and Divine proofs upon the people after me will be 12 individuals. The first of them is my brother (Ali ibn Abi Talib, AS) and the last of them my son (Mahdi, AS) …” [31].

*    “Verily, the executor of my will and successor after me is Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS), and after him my two grandsons Hassan (AS) and Hussain (AS). After them, nine righteous Imams from the progeny of Hussain … After Hussain, his son Ali; after Ali his son Muhammad; after Muhammad, then his son Ali; After him his son Hassan; then the Hujjat the son of Hassan. These are the twelve Imams who are the same number as Chiefs of the Tribes of the Children of Israel”[32].

o   The Narrations of Imamah:

There are multiple narrations from the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) about the Imamah of Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) and his eleven descendants in both Shia and Sunni sources that explicitly present them as Imams that should be followed. For example, refer to the following narrations,

*    “Three things have been revealed to me about Ali (AS): That he is the Imam of the Pious, the Master of the Muslims, and the Leader of those with bright faces until the Heavens full of blessings”[33]

*    “After me, there will be 12 Imams. The first of them is you, oh Ali, and the last of them is Qa’im (the one that will rise), through whose hands God will conquer the East and West of the Earth”[34].

*     “The Imams after me after me are the following people:

        1. al-Hadi (The guide), Ali (AS)
        2. al-Muhtadi (One who guides), Hassan (AS)
        3. an-Naser (One who helps), Hussain (AS)
        4. al-Mansur (One that was helped), Ali ibn al-Hussain (AS)
        5. ash-Shafe (One who heals), Muhammad ibn Ali (AS)
        6. an-Naafe (One who brings benefit), Ja’far ibn Muhammad (AS)
        7. al-Amin
        8. ar-Ridha (One who satisfies), Ali ibn Musa (AS)
        9. al-Fa’al (The active), Muhammad ibn Ali (AS)
        10. al-Mutma’en (The assured), Ali ibn Muhammad (AS)
        11. al-Allam (Very knowledgable), Hassan ibn Ali (AS)
        12. al-Qa’im (One who will rise), who Jesus the Son of Mary will pray behind”[35].

On the day of Ghadir, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), in a long sermon to a large group of Muslims, stated that,

*    “God has made Ali (AS) the Guardian and Imam whose obedience is incumbent upon every monotheist” [36].

*    “Whoever opposes him will be cursed by God, and whoever follows him will be blessed by God”[37].

*    “After me, Ali is your Guardian, and by your Lord’s order, is your Imam. Then, the continuation of Imamah is in my progeny and Ali’s children”[38].

*    “There is no Ilm other than that which I have given to Ali, and he is the manifest Imam”[39].

*    “Do not get lost from Ali towards others, do not turn away from him, and do not reject his Guardianship” [40].

*    “He is the successor of the Prophet of God, the Commander of the Faithful, and the Guiding Imam from God”[41].

*    “Verily, God has completed your religion with his Imamah[42].

*    “Oh people, swear allegiance to God and swear allegiance to me, and swear allegiance to Ali, the Commander of the Faithful, Hassan, Hussain, and the Imams from them”[43].

*    “Whoever obeys God, his Messenger, Ali, and the Imams that I have mentioned has reached a great felicity”[44].

In addition to assuring the people that they will not be left without a guide and leader after him by introducing the twelve Imams, the Prophet also emphasized,

مَنْ مَاتَ وَ لَمْ يَعْرِفْ إِمَامَ زَمَانِهِ مَاتَ مِيتَةً جَاهِلِيَّة[45]

Whoever dies without having marifat of the Imam of their time, will have died a death of ignorance.

This means if someone does not recognize the Imam of their time during their life and does not follow them, at the moment of death, they will be leaving the world in a state of ignorance and without religion. This level of emphasis on the necessity of recognizing and following the Imams is yet another sign of how important it is to accept Imamah.

Now that we have given Aql based, Quranic, and Narration based proofs for the necessity of believing in Imamah, it is time for us to become more familiar with the status and characteristics of the 12 Imams from the Ahlul Bayt (‘People of the House’ or family) of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).

   

The Status and Characteristics of the 12 Imams

-    Holding Fast to the Imam Prevents Misguidance Until the Day of Judgement

The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) repeated time and time again that God has established a guiding Imam for the people of each era after their Prophet

وَ لِكُلِّ قَوْمٍ هادٍ.[46]

Whoever holds fast onto the Imam of their time will not be misguided until the very Day of Judgement. One of the most famous narrations about this issue is the Mutawatir Narration of Thaqlayn (a Mutawatir narration is one that is conveyed from so many different narrators from different sources that it is considered highly reliable),

“I will leave two weighty things among you: The Book of Allah and my close family, the Ahlul Bayt. As long as you hold fast to these two, you will not be misguided”[47].

A few important points should be made about the abovementioned narration:

o    The original Arabic word that translating to “hold fast” is Tamassok. Tamassok means sticking two objects together, such that it is very difficult to separate them, just like skin sticks to flesh[48].

o    The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) specified that holding fast to the Holy Quran is that same as holding fast to the Ahlul Bayt and asking them the meaning and interpretation of the Words of God[49]. Otherwise, without referring to the guiding Imams, the people cannot understand the true meaning of Quranic verses and God’s purpose for His words.

o     On multiple occasions, when the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) explained this narration, he specified that the meaning of the word Ahlul Bayt are the 12 Imams, and even specifically gave their names[50].

Based on this narration, referring to and holding fast to the Imams will protect individuals from misguidance.

-    The Ark of Salvation

The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) described the 12 Imams as such,

“Ali, Hassan, Hussain, and the 9 Imams from the progeny of Hussain are like the Ark of Noah. Whoever boards it will be saved and whoever turns away from it will drown”[51].

-    Immune from Any Mistake or Impurity

God Almighty gave human beings the guarantee that the 12 Chosen Imams are pure from any mistake, error, or sin. In other words, they are infallible.

            إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ[52]وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا[53]       

Verily, God intends to remove any impurity from you, oh Ahlul Bayt and to make you pure and spotless.

Thus, the people can refer to the Imam free of worry and get help from them for different problems in their life, whether relating to this world or the next.

-    More Compassionate than A Father, More Affectionate than a Mother

The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) introduced Imam Ali (AS), and thus the rest of the Imams, as the “Fathers of the Ummah (Muslim Nation)” time and time again. They were compassionate fathers who sacrificed their lives and wealth for the people’s wellbeing and faced the challenges of their era[54].

According to Imam Ridha (AS), the eighth Imam and successor to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), an Imam is a compassionate father and affectionate mother towards a small infant[55]. Just like fathers put their entire effort and resources to make their children successful, and just like mothers do not hold back from any kind act towards their child, the Imams also deal with the people in a similar way, or even more compassionate and more affectionate than parents[56].

The importance of the status of parents, who go through the difficulties of bearing, nurturing, and bringing up a child, are not hidden from anyone. If it were not for their support and care, that infant would not be born, or would pass away in the first few days after birth. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) emphasized that no matter how much a person tries, they cannot even make up for one moment of the suffering their mother experienced while giving birth to them[57]. Despite this, according to the Prophet of Mercy, the right of the Imam is higher than a person’s birth parents. He stated,

“Ali and I are the two fathers of this nation. Our rights upon this nation are higher than their own birth parents. For if they obey us, we will save them from the fire, guide them to Heaven, and through serving God Almighty, will make them join the chosen free ones”[58].

-    The Safe Haven

The Imam is a safe haven for those that seek refuge to them in the difficulties of their life[59]. This applies whether the person seeking refuge is a friend or enemy, accepts that Imam’s status or not, or is a Muslim or non-Muslim[60].

-    Knowledgeable of All Types of Ilm

The person that others are going to trust as the guardian and guide, should possess the most Ilm and be the most knowledgeable individual person in the world.

It is possible to get a good grasp of human sciences like physics, chemistry, and medicine through experience, research, trial and error. However, can someone claim they have complete mastery over the essence of those sciences to the point at which there is no unclear points left for them? Is it possible to use these same methods to get a grasp of esoteric types of Ilm, and have knowledge of the details of the past and future? If all the knowledgeable people of the world joined together, could they use their talents, reason, and brains to reveal the truths of the world before this life, or the life after death? Will they be able to answers people’s questions about these issues without any doubts? Certainly not.

But is it possible for God Almighty, who holds all Ilm and knowledge of the past and future, of the heavens and earth, to bestow it, in this entirety, to certain servants of his? This is certainly possible.

God the Most Wise has, out of mercy, made the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his successors reservoirs of Ilm[61]. Throughout history, the Ahlul Bayt have been the most secure source of Ilm for the people and scholars. No one ever asked a question from them that was left unanswered, to the extent that Imam Ali (AS) told the people, “Ask me, before you lose me”[62]. But alas, the people did not understand his high status of Ilm, did not have mercy on themselves so that by virtue of the Imam’s knowledge, they could make their current lives and hereafter prosperous. Instead, the most that they asked for, was one person asking the Imam how many hairs he had on his head![63]

-    The Best in All Good Traits

One of the signs and characteristics of an Imam is that they are the best in every good trait. They are the most knowledgeable, most wise, most righteous, most Aqil, most brave, most generous, and most honorable person among the people[64]. This issue is so obvious and undeniable, that even the enemies of the Ahlulbayt admitted to it at various times[65].

-    Chosen by God

The most important characteristic of the 12 Imams is that they were chosen by God the Most Wise. Without any doubt, the All-Powerful Creator knows which people are worthy of being the guardian of the people and are eligible to guide them (اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ حَيْثُ يَجْعَلُ‏ رِسالَتَه)[66].

   

The Living Imam of this Era

As was mentioned, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) introduced 12 Imams on behalf of God as guardians and guides for the people after him. The Prophet of Mercy emphasized time after time that the success and guidance of the people depends on referring to the Imam of their Era and helping him. However, after the Prophet, the majority of people ignored this clear Divine Verdict and important will of the Prophet and abandoned the Imams. Not only did they not follow the Imam of their Era, but left him alone in the face of the enemies of the truth and humanity and did not rush to his aid.

Thus, evil and jealous men that considered the people’s attention to the Imams to be a threat to their power and legitimacy, which was based upon oppression and violating other people’s rights, took advantage of the Imams being left alone, and martyred the Imams one after another. This continued until the 12th and final Imam, Imam Mahdi (AS).

Since the people did not appreciate the blessings of the existence of the previous Imams, God showed His Wrath to them. He made His last guide out of reach for the people so his life would be safe. The Imam was put in a state of Ghaybat (occultation).

But what does this mean? What does it mean for the Imam to be in Ghaybat? How long will this last?

How is it possible to be in touch with a guide that is in occultation?

How can people living in this era make use of the guidance of an Imam that is in occultation?

The answers to these questions will be given in Lesson 7.

   

Main Points of this Lesson

-    The word Imamah comes from the root Imam, meaning leader, guardian, or the person that a group of people follow. The word refers to accepting the guardianship of the 12 Divine Successors to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).

-    The Seal of the Prophets designated 12 successors by Divine Decree and advised everyone to refer to the Imam of their Era, follow them, and support them.

-    According to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), anyone that does not recognize the Imam of their Era and does not follow them, has died a death of ignorance and without religion.

-    The 12 Successors to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) were:

o    The First Imam: Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS), the Commander of the Faithful

o    The Second Imam: Hassan ibn Ali (AS)

o    The Third Imam: Hussain ibn Ali (AS)

o    The Fourth Imam: Ali ibn Hussain (AS)

o    The Fifth Imam: Mohammad ibn Ali (AS)

o    The Sixth Imam: Ja’far ibn Mohammad (AS)

o    The Seventh Imam: Musa ibn Ja’far (AS)

o    The Eighth Imam: Ali ibn Musa (AS)

o    The Ninth Imam: Muhammad ibn Ali (AS)

o    The Tenth Imam: Ali ibn Muhammad (AS)

o    The Eleventh Imam: Hassan ibn Ali (AS)

o    The Twelfth Imam: Hujjat ibn Ali Hassan al-Mahdi (AS)

-    Aql Based Reasons for the Believing in the Imams

o    According to the Aql, any wise leader with forethought will pick a successor for their followers to take care of them when they are gone. The tradition of all the Prophets, including the Seal of the Prophets, was to personally introduce a successor to the people

o    As confirmed by the Aql, everything that was said about the necessity of the existence of Prophets still is valid after the end of the chain of Prophethood. Human beings still need a Divine Guide to wake up their Fitrah, grow their Aql, interpret God’s word for them, reform distortions in religion, and solve disputes among them.

-    Narration Based Reasons for Believing in the Imams

o    The Verse of Obeying the Ulil Amr

o    The Verse of Wilayat (Guardianship)

o    The Verse of Tabligh (Propogation)

o    The Verse of Ikmal al-Din (the Perfection of Religion)

o    The Narrations of Wilayat (Guardianship) from the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in which he explicitly states that the Guardianship of the people will pass on to the 12 Imams after him.

o    The Narrations of Khilafat (Successorship) from the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in which the Seal of the Prophets explicitly states who his successors will be.

o    The Narrations of Imamah in which the Prophet (PBUH) introduced the Imams to the people, and took oaths from them to follow and support the Imams.

-    The Status and Characteristics of the 12 Imams

o    Holding Fast to the Imam Prevents Misguidance Until the Day of Judgement

o    The Ark of Salvation

o    Immune from Any Mistake or Impurity

o    More Compassionate than A Father, More Affectionate than a Mother

o    The Safe Haven

o    Knowledgeable of All Types of Ilm.

o    The Best in All Good Traits

   

Main Source: Mohammad Foundation

     


[1] “[The Imam] is the person whose leadership is followed, in word and in action”. Translation of Mufradat Raghib. Volume 1, Page 197.

“The Imam is that which is followed and conformed to, whether it is a person or a book or something else, whether is it with truth or falsehood”. Qamoos al-Quran, Volume 1, Page 120-121

[2] The Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (AS), said about this,

وَ خَلَّفَ فِيكُمْ مَا خَلَّفَتِ الْأَنْبِيَاءُ فِي أُمَمِهَا إِذْ لَمْ يَتْرُكُوهُمْ هَمَلًا بِغَيْرِ طَرِيقٍ وَاضِحٍ وَ لَا عَلَمٍ قَائِم‏

meaning, “The Seal of the Prophets chose a successor among the people just like all previous Prophets chose a successor for their nations. This is because the Prophets never abandon the people to wander, be without a leader, or be without clear path”. Nahj al-Balagha (Subhi Saleh numbering), Sermon 1, Page 44.

It has also been narrated that Salman the Persian (one of the Prophet’s Companions) asked the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) who was the executor of his will, given that all the Prophets had a successor and executor of will? The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) responded,

“The executor of my will, the keeper of my secrets, the best person that will remain after me, the person that will carry out my promises, and the person that will pay my debts will be Ali ibn Abi Talib”.

إنَ لکلُ نبي وصیّاً فمن وصیُّک؟ ...قال فإنَ وصیّي وموضع سرّي وخیر من أترك بعدي وینجز عدتي وینقضي دِیني، عليّ بن أبي طالب

Sunni Sources : al-Mu’jam al-Kabir, Volume 6, Page 221; Fada’il as-Sahaba (Ahmad ibn Hanbal), Volume 2, Page 615, Hadith 1052; Majma al-Zawa’id (Haythami), Volume 9, Page 113-114; Fath al-Bari, Volume 8, Page 114. Similar contents found in Shia Sources: Ilal al-Sharayi’, Volume 2, Page 469; Kifayat al-Athar, Page 147-151.

[3] The Holy Quran, Surah ar-Ra’d (13:7). The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) explained this verse by putting his hand on Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS)’s chest and saying,

وَلِكُلِّ قَوْمٍ هَادٍ؛ ثم قال: انک منارة الأنام و غایة الهدی و أمیر القری و أشهد علی ذلک أنک کذلک

meaning, “‘And for every people there is a guide’, (The Holy Quran, Surah ar-Ra’d, 13:7). And, [oh Ali], you are the light of the people’s path, the culmination of guidance, and the ruler of the cities, and I testify upon this”. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 23, Page 2.

Imam Sadiq (AS), the sixth successor and interpreter of the Quran after the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), also explained this verse by saying,

كُلُّ إِمَامٍ هَادٍ لِلْقَرْنِ الَّذِی هُوَ فِیهِمْ

meaning, “Each Imam (of the 12 Imams that the Prophet Muhammad, PBUH, introduced by God’s command) is the guide for the era they live in”. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 23, Page 3.

Imam Baqir (AS), the fifth successor and interpreter of the Quran after the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), also stated,

“For every era there is a guide from us (the Ahlul Bayt) that will guide them (the people) to what came to the Prophet, after him Ali, and after him the rest of the successors that came one after another”. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 16, Page 358.

In many Sunni sources it has also been stated that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) pointed to Imam Ali (AS) when interpreting the word “Guide” in this verse and stated the meaning of guide was Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS). A few examples of this can be seen in: Shawahid al-Tanzil Heskani, Volume 1, Page 294; Tafsir ad-Durr al-Manthur, Volume 4, Page 45; Tafsir al-Quran al-Adhim (Ibn Kathir), Volume 4, Page 372; Tafsir Jami’ al-Bayan (Tabari), Volume 13, Page 72; Fara’id al-Samtayn, Volume 1, Page 148; Tafsir al-Kabir (Fakhr Razi), Volume 19, Page 14; al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, Volume 3, Page 129.

[4] God Almighty states in the Holy Quran,

یا أَیهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَیكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ وَإِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ

meaning, “Oh Messenger, announce that which has been revealed to you from your Lord, and if you do not, you have not, your Prophethood will not be completed”. The Holy Quran, Surah al-Ma’idah (5:67).

Many significant Sunni Scholars consider this verse to be about Imam Ali (AS). For example, Suyuti narrates from Abdullah ibn Masoud that during the time of the Prophet, they would read the verse as such, «یا أَیهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَیكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ وَإِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ», meaning, “Oh Messenger, announce that which has been revealed to you from your Lord, that verily, Ali is the Master of the believers”. Tafsir ad-Durr al-Manthur, Volume 2, Page 298; Fath hul-Qadeer, Volume 2, Page 60; Also refer to Tafsir Ibn abu Hatam, Volume 4, Page 1172; Ruh al-Ma’ani, Volume 6, Page 193.

[5] For example, refer to the will of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) on the Day of Ghadir, when he said,

أَلَا إِنَّ الْحَلَالَ وَ الْحَرَامَ أَكْثَرُ مِنْ أَنْ أُحْصِيَهُمَا وَ أُعَرِّفَهُمَا فَآمُرَ بِالْحَلَالِ وَ أَنْهَى عَنِ الْحَرَامِ فِي مَقَامٍ وَاحِدٍ فَأُمِرْتُ أَنْ آخُذَ الْبَيْعَةَ مِنْكُمْ وَ الصَّفْقَةَ لَكُمْ بِقَبُولِ مَا جِئْتُ بِهِ عَنِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فِي عَلِيٍّ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ الْأَئِمَّةِ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ الَّذِينَ هُمْ مِنِّي وَ مِنْهُ أَئِمَّةٌ قَائِمَةٌ مِنْهُمُ الْمَهْدِيُّ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ الَّذِي يَقْضِي بِالْحَق‏

meaning, “Know that the Halal (permitted) and Haram (forbidden) are more numerous than I [will be able to] count and introduce them you. They are more than me being able to order you to do all the Halal acts and forbid you from all the Haram acts in a single session. Therefore, I have been commanded to get an oath from you and extend my hand to you upon you accepting that which I have brought from God Almighty about the Commander of the Faithful and the Imams after him that are from my progeny and his. [And that issue] is the Imamah which will, until the Day of Judgement, be standing only in them. And the last of them is Mahdi, who will give judgements upon the truth. Al-Ihtijaj (by Tabarsi), Volume 1, Page 65.

He also stated,

فَوَ اللَّهِ لَنْ يُبَيِّنَ لَكُمْ زَوَاجِرَهُ وَ لَا يُوَضِّحُ لَكُمْ تَفْسِيرَهُ إِلَّا الَّذِي أَنَا آخِذٌ بِيَدِهِ ... مُعْلِمُكُمْ أَنَّ مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ فَهَذَا عَلِيٌّ مَوْلَاهُ وَ هُوَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ع أَخِي وَ وَصِيِّي وَ مُوَالاتُهُ مِنَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ أَنْزَلَهَا عَلَيّ‏

meaning, “I swear upon God, no one will state the inner [dimension] of the Quran and no one will elucidate its interpretation for you other than this person whose hand is in my hand … and I will make you understand ‘Whoever I possess authority over, this Ali possesses authority over’. And he, Ali Abi Talib (AS), is my brother and successor. His guardianship is from God Almighty, which has been revealed to me”. ibid, Page 60.

[6] The Holy Quran, Surah an-Nisa (4:59).

[7] Jabir ibn Abdullah Ansari says,

لَمَّا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ عَلَى نَبِیهِ - یا أَیهَا الَّذِینَ آمَنُوا أَطِیعُوا اللَّهَ وَ أَطِیعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَ أُولِی الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ قُلْتُ یا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ عَرَفْنَا اللَّهَ وَ رَسُولَهُ فَمَنْ أُولُو الْأَمْرِ الَّذِینَ قَرَنَ اللَّهُ طَاعَتَهُمْ بِطَاعَتِكَ قَالَ هُمْ خُلَفَائِی یا جَابِرُ وَ أَئِمَّةُ الْمُسْلِمِینَ بَعْدِی أَوَّلُهُمْ عَلِی بْنُ أَبِی طَالِبٍ ثُمَّ الْحَسَنُ ثُمَّ الْحُسَینُ ثُمَّ عَلِی بْنُ الْحُسَینِ ثُمَّ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِی ... ثُمَّ الصَّادِقُ جَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ ثُمَّ مُوسَى بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ ثُمَّ عَلِی بْنُ مُوسَى ثُمَّ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِی ثُمَّ عَلِی بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ ثُمَّ الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِی ثُمَّ سَمِیی وَ كَنِیی حُجَّةُ اللَّهِ فِی أَرْضِهِ وَ بَقِیتُهُ فِی عِبَادِهِ ابْنُ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِی ...

meaning, “When this verse was revealed, I came to the Prophet and told him you have made us familiar with God and his Prophet, who is yourself. But who are the Ulil Amr whose obedience is put on par with the obedience of God and the Messenger? The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) stated, ‘Oh Jabir, the meaning of Ulil Amri are my successors. The first of them is Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS). Then Hassan (AS), then Hussain (AS), then Ali ibn Hussain (AS), then Mohammad ibn Ali (AS) … then Ja’far Sadiq (AS), then Musa ibn Ja’far (AS), then Ali ibn Musa (AS), then Muhammad ibn Ali (AS), then Ali ibn Muhammad (AS), then Hassan ibn Ali (AS), then the person with the same name and same Kunya (Teknonymy) as me, the proof of God on the Earth, the son of Hassan ibn Ali Askari (AS)’”. Tafsir Burhan, Volume 2, Page 103 (in reference to Verse 59 of Surah an-Nisa); Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 36, Page 250.

[8] For example, Hakim Haskani Hanafi Neyshabouri cites 5 narrations in the book Shawahid al-Tanzil, in the entry for this verse (Surah an-Nisa, Verse 59), all of which state Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) is a clear example of Ulil Amr. Shawhid al-Tanzil, Volume 1, Page 148-151. One of those narrations is,

"... عَنْ أَبِی بَصِیرٍ، عَنْ أَبِی جَعْفَرٍ، أَنَّهُ سَأَلَهُ عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى:«أَطِیعُوا اللَّهَ وَ أَطِیعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَ أُولِی الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ»‌ قَالَ: نَزَلَتْ فِی عَلِی بْنِ أَبِی طَالِبٍ. قُلْتُ: إِنَّ النَّاسَ یقُولُونَ: فَمَا مَنَعَهُ أَنْ یسَمِّی عَلِیاً وَ أَهْلَ بَیتِهِ فِی كِتَابِهِ فَقَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ: قُولُوا لَهُمْ: إِنَّ اللَّهَ أَنْزَلَ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ الصَّلَاةَ وَ لَمْ یسَمِّ ثَلَاثاً وَ لَا أَرْبَعاً- حَتَّى كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ هُوَ الَّذِی فَسَّرَ ذَلِكَ، وَ أَنْزَلَ الْحَجَّ فَلَمْ ینْزِلْ: طُوفُوا سَبْعاً حَتَّى فَسَّرَ ذَلِكَ لَهُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَ أَنْزَلَ: أَطِیعُوا اللَّهَ وَ أَطِیعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَ أُولِی الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ‌ فَنَزَلَتْ فِی عَلِی وَ الْحَسَنِ وَ الْحُسَینِ، وَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص: أُوصِیكُمْ بِكِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَ أَهْلِ بَیتِی إِنِّی سَأَلْتُ اللَّهَ أَنْ لَا یفَرِّقَ بَینَهُمَا- حَتَّى یورِدَهُمَا عَلَی الْحَوْضَ فَأَعْطَانِی ذَلِكَ"

ibid, Page 149-150, Hadith 203.

[9] For example, refer to the narrations cited in Tafsir Burhan, Volume 2, Page 103-115 (in reference to Surah an-Nisa, Verse 59). An example of one such narration is given in Footnote 7.

[10] The Holy Quran, Surah al-Ma’idah (5:55).

[11] For example, refer to the narrations that have been brought in Tafsir Borhan, in relation to Verse 55 of Surah al-Ma’idah. Tafsir Borhan, Volume 2, Page 315-326. Such as: “A group of Jews that had converted to Islam, came to the Seal of the Prophets and explained that the Prophet Moses (AS) made his will to Joshua and made him his successor. Who was the Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) successor, and who will be their guardian after him? Then the verse of,

إِنَّما وَلِیُّکُمُ اللَّهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ الَّذینَ آمَنُوا الَّذینَ یُقیمُونَ الصَّلاةَ وَ یُؤْتُونَ الزَّکاةَ وَ هُمْ راکِعُون

was revealed. The Prophet joined them and went to the mosque. There they saw a needy person with a ring. They asked him who gave him that ring? He said the man that is praying, and pointed to Ali (AS). The Prophet asked what state he was in when he gave the ring? He responded that he was in ruku (bowing in prayer). When the Prophet heard this, he gave a takbir (exclaiming ‘God is Great’) and the rest of the Muslims followed him and gave takbirs. Then the Prophet stated that the people should be aware that their leader and guardian after him would be Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS). The people all responded that they were satisfied that Allah was their Lord, Islam was their Religion, Muhammad (PBUH) was their Prophet, and Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) was their Guardian”. ibid, Page 318, Hadith 3167.

[12] For example, refer to: Tafsir ad-Durr al-Manthur, Volume 2, Page 293; Asbab al-Nuzul (Wahidi), Page 148; Tafsir al-Kashshaf (Zamakhshari), Volume 1, Page 649; Tafsir Fakhr Razi, Volume 12, Page 26; Tafsir Tabari, Volume 6, Page 186; Kanz al-Ummal, Volume 6, Page 319; Shawahid al-Tanzil (Al-Haskani), Page 161-168; Tafsir Fath hul-Qadeer, Volume 2, Page 50; Jami’ al-Usul, Volume 9, Page 478; Zakhair ul-Uqba, Page 88.

[13] The Holy Quran, Surah al-Ma’idah (5:67).

[14] The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) commanded Bilal (one of his companions famous for saying the call to prayer),

"یا بلال ناد فی الناس ان لا یبقی غدا احد الا علیل الا خرج الی غدیر خم"

meaning, “Oh Bilal, tell the people that tomorrow, no one but the disabled should stay [in Mecca] and all should head toward Ghadir Khumm”. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 37, Page 111.

[15] Taken from,

فَأَوْحَى‏ إِلَيَ‏ بِسْمِ‏ اللَّهِ‏ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ* ... يا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ ما أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ‏ فِي عَلِيٍّ يَعْنِي فِي الْخِلَافَةِ لِعَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ع‏ وَ إِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ فَما بَلَّغْتَ رِسالَتَهُ ... إِنَّ جَبْرئیلَ هَبَطَ إِلَی مِراراً ثَلاثاً یَأْمُرُنی عَنِ السَّلامِ رَبّی – وَ هُوالسَّلامُ – أَنْ أَقُومَ فی هذَا الْمَشْهَدِ فَأُعْلِمَ کُلَّ أَبْیَضَ وَأَسْوَدَ: أَنَّ عَلِی بْنَ أَبی طالِبٍ أَخی وَ وَصِیّی وَ خَلیفَتی (عَلی أُمَّتی) وَالْإِمامُ مِنْ بَعْدی، الَّذی مَحَلُّهُ مِنّی مَحَلُّ هارُونَ مِنْ مُوسی إِلاَّ أَنَّهُ لانَبِی بَعْدی وَهُوَ وَلِیُّکُمْ بَعْدَالله وَ رَسُولِهِ ...

meaning, “God has revealed the following to me, ‘In the Name of God Oh Messenger, deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord about Ali (AS), meaning the Caliphate of Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS), and if you do it not, then you will not have fulfilled your mission …’. [The Archangel] Gabriel was revealed to me three times, and on behalf of the God of Salaam [peace], my Lord – who is Salaam – gave me the mission to gather a crowd in this location, and declare to all whites and blacks that, ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) is my brother, executor of my will, and my successor upon my Ummah [Nation] after me, and the Imam after me. His relation to me is like the relation of Aaron (AS) to Moses (AS), except that there will be no Prophet after me. He is the possessor of your authority after God and His Messenger”. A-Ihtijaj (by Tabarsi), Volume 1, Page 59.

[16]

مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ إِنَّهُ آخِرُ مَقَامٍ أَقُومُهُ فِي هَذَا الْمَشْهَدِ فَاسْمَعُوا وَ أَطِيعُوا

Meaning, “Oh people, this is the last time that you will see me standing in such a gather, so listen to me and obey”. ibid.

[17] Refer to the words of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), who said on the Day of Ghadir,

فَاعْلَمُوا مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ أَنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ نَصَبَهُ لَكُمْ وَلِيّاً وَ إِمَاماً مُفْتَرَضاً طَاعَتُهُ عَلَى الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَ الْأَنْصَارِ وَ عَلَى التَّابِعِينَ لَهُمْ بِإِحْسَانٍ وَ عَلَى الْبَادِي وَ الْحَاضِرِ وَ عَلَى الْأَعْجَمِيِّ وَ الْعَرَبِيِّ وَ الْحُرِّ وَ الْمَمْلُوكِ وَ الصَّغِيرِ وَ الْكَبِيرِ وَ عَلَى الْأَبْيَضِ وَ الْأَسْوَدِ وَ عَلَى كُلِّ مُوَحِّدٍ مَاضٍ حُكْمُهُ جَائِزٍ قَوْلُهُ نَافِذٍ أَمْرُهُ مَلْعُونٌ مَنْ خَالَفَهُ مَرْحُومٌ مَنْ تَبِعَهُ مُؤْمِنٌ مَنْ صَدَّقَهُ فَقَدْ غَفَرَ اللَّهُ لَهُ وَ لِمَنْ سَمِعَ مِنْهُ وَ أَطَاعَ لَه

meaning, “Oh people, know this matter about Ali (AS), that God has made him the possessor of authority for you and made him an Imam whose obedience is mandatory upon the Muhajerin [the Emigrants, referring to the first group of converts to Islam that migrated with the Prophet from Mecca to Medina], the Ansar [the Helpers, referring to the inhabitants of Medina who took in the Prophet and the Muhajerin after they migrated], and the Tabi’un [those that followed them] upon goodness. It is mandatory upon the inhabitants of villages and inhabitants of cities, upon the non-Arabs and Arabs, upon the free and the slave, upon the big and small, and upon the white and black. His command is incumbent upon any monotheist, his words must be acted upon, and his order is dominant. Anyone that opposes him is cursed, whoever follows him will be under Divine Mercy, and whoever acknowledges him is a Mu’min [believer]. God will forgive him and whoever hears from him and obeys”.

مَعاشِرَالنّاسِ، إِنَّما أَکْمَلَ الله عَزَّوَجَلَّ دینَکُمْ بِإِمامَتِهِ فَمَنْ لَمْ یَأْتَمَّ بِهِ وَبِمَنْ یَقُومُ مَقامَهُ مِنْ وُلْدی مِنْ صُلْبِهِ إِلی یَوْمِ الْقِیامَةِ وَالْعَرْضِ عَلَی الله عَزَّوَجَلَّ فَأُولئِکَ الَّذینَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمالُهُمْ

meaning, “Oh people, God has completed your religion with Imamah, so whoever does not follow him and those that are his successors from my children and his offspring until the Day of Judgement and the day of going before God Almighty, these people’s deeds are void (The Holy Quran, Surah Ali ‘Imran, 3:22)”.

فَقُولُوا بِأَجْمَعِكُمْ إِنَّا سَامِعُونَ مُطِيعُونَ رَاضُونَ مُنْقَادُونَ لِمَا بَلَّغْتَ عَنْ رَبِّنَا وَ رَبِّكَ فِي أَمْرِ عَلِيٍّ وَ أَمْرِ وُلْدِهِ مِنْ صُلْبِهِ مِنَ الْأَئِمَّة

meaning, “So everyone should say, ‘We heard and will obey. And we are satisfied and will bring our heads down in surrender about that which has come to us from our Lord and your Lord about the matter of the Imamah of our Imam Ali (AS) and the Imams that have come to this world from his loins”.

Taken from: Khutba Ghadir, Al_Ihtijaj (by Tabarsi), Volume 1, Page 58-66.

[18]

اللَّهُمَّ ... انْصُرْ مَنْ نَصَرَه‏

meaning, “Oh Allah … help whoever helps him [Ali, AS]”. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 28, Page 98.

[19] Refer to the words of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), who said on the Day of Ghadir,

أَلَا إِنَّ جَبْرَئِيلَ خَبَّرَنِي عَنِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى بِذَلِكَ وَ يَقُولُ مَنْ عَادَى عَلِيّاً وَ لَمْ يَتَوَلَّهُ فَعَلَيْهِ لَعْنَتِي وَ غَضَبِي

meaning, “Know that (the Archangel) Gabriel has brought this news from God for me and says, ‘Whoever makes enmity with Ali (AS) and does not accept his Wilayat (Guardianship) my curses and anger will be upon them”.

بِأَمْرِ رَبِّي أَقُولُ اللَّهُمَّ ... عَادِ مَنْ عَادَاهُ‏

meaning, “Oh my Lord, I say by your decree, ‘... be the enemy of whoever is his (Ali’s) enemy’”.

إِنَّهُ لَا يُبْغِضُ عَلِيّاً إِلَّا شَقِي‏

meaning, “Know that no one other than a villain is an enemy of Ali (AS)”.

أَلَا إِنَّ أَعْدَاءَ عَلِيٍّ هُمْ أَهْلُ الشِّقَاقِ وَ النِّفَاقِ وَ الْحَادُّونَ وَ هُمُ الْعَادُّونَ وَ إِخْوَانُ الشَّيَاطِين

meaning, “Know that the enemies of Ali (AS) are the people of wretchedness, hypocrisy, and antagonism. And they are the enemy and are the brothers of Satan”.

Taken from: Khutba Ghadir, Al_Ihtijaj (by Tabarsi), Volume 1, Page 58-66.

[20]

مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ إِنِّي أَدَعُهَا إِمَامَةً وَ وِرَاثَةً فِي عَقِبِي إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَ قَدْ بَلَّغْتُ مَا أُمِرْتُ بِتَبْلِيغِهِ حُجَّةً عَلَى كُلِّ حَاضِرٍ وَ غَائِبٍ وَ عَلَى كُلِّ أَحَدٍ مِمَّنْ شَهِدَ أَوْ لَمْ يَشْهَدْ وُلِدَ أَوْ لَمْ يُولَدْ فَلْيُبَلِّغِ‏ الْحَاضِرُ الْغَائِبَ وَ الْوَالِدُ الْوَلَدَ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ ... قَدْ أَمَرَنِيَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ أَنْ آخُذَ مِنْ أَلْسِنَتِكُمُ الْإِقْرَارَ بِمَا عَقَدْتُ لِعَلِيٍّ مِنْ إِمْرَةِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ مَنْ جَاءَ بَعْدَهُ مِنَ الْأَئِمَّةِ مِنِّي وَ مِنْهُ ...‏

meaning, “Oh people, I entrust [you with] the matter of Caliphate as Imamah and inheritance in my descendants until the Day of Judgement, and I brought to you what I had the mission to proclaim to you so that it is a proof upon those that are present and not present and upon all the people that are here or are not here, have been born or are not born yet. So those that are present should bring (the message) to those that are not present and fathers should bring it to their children until the Day of Judgement … My Lord has given me the mission to get an acknowledgement from your tongues about that which I have proclaimed about Ali the Commander of the Faithful (AS) and the Imams that will come after him and are from my descendants and his descendants”. Refer to the Sermon of Ghadir Khumm, A-Ihtijaj (by Tabarsi), Volume 1, Page 62 and 65.

[21] Refer to footnote 13.

[22] For example, refer to that have been cited in Tafsir Borhan in regard to Verse 67 of Surah al-Ma’idah. Tafsir Borhan, Volume 2, Pages 334-339.

[23] Some examples well known scholars that wrote about the connection between Verse 67 of Surah al-Ma’idah and the succession of Imam Ali (AS) include:

-          Hafiz Abu Nu’aym Isfahani in the book Ma Nazal Min al-Quran fi Ali (as cited by al-Khasa’is, Page 29).

-          Abul Hassan Wahidi Neyshabouri in Asbab an-Nuzul, Page 150.

-    Ibn Asakir Shafi’i (as cited by Tafsir ad-Durr al-Manthur, Volume 2, Page 298).

-    Fakhr Razi in Tafsir Kabir, Volume 3, Page 626.

-    Abu Ishaq Hamavaini in Fara’id al-Samtayn (Makhtoot).

-    Ibn Sabbagh al-Maliki in al-Fusul al-Muhimma, Page 27.

-    Jalal ad-Din Soyouti in Tafsir ad-Durr al-Manthur, Volume 2, Page 298.

-    Ghaazi Shokaani in Fath hul-Qadeer, Volume 3, Page 57.

-    Shahab ad-Din al-Alusi Shafi’i in Ruh al-Ma’ani, Volume 6, Page 172.

-    Sheikh Solayman Qanduzi Hanafi in al-Yanaabi’ al-Mawaddah, Page 120.

-    Badr ad-Din Hanafi in Umdat al-Qaari fi Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 8, Page 584.

-    Sheikh Muhammad ‘Abduh in Tafsir al-Manar, Volume 6, Page 463.

[24] The Holy Quran, Surah al-Ma’idah (5:3).

[25] The revelation of the Verse of Ikmal al-Din [the perfection of religion] on the Day of Ghadir has been acknowledged by many of the leading scholars of Hadith [narrations] and history, including: Tabari, Ibn Mardavayh, Abu Nu’aym Isfahani, Khatib Baghdadi, Abu Sa’id Sijistani, Abu al-Hassan al-Mughazili, Abu al-Qasim al-Hakim al-Haskani, Ibn Asakir Dimashqi, Khatib Kharazmi, Ibn al-Jawzi, Sheikh al-Islam Hamavaini, and Ibn Kathir Shami.

Shia sources generally cite the occasion of revelation of this verse to be the Day of Ghadir. For example, refer to: Kafi(Published by Al-Islamia), Volume 1, Page 289; Tafsir Forat Kufi, Page 118; Tafsir Saafi, Volume 2, Page 10; Tafsir Borhan, Volume 2, Page 225 (in reference to Verse 3 of Surah al-Ma'idah).

[26] For example, Hakim Haskani Hanafi Neyshabouri has cited narrations of Abu Hurayrah, Abu Sa’id al-Khudri, and Ibn Abbas in his book Shawahid al-Tanzil in reference to Verse 3 of Surah al-Ma’idah that connect Ikmal al-Din (the perfection of religion) with the bringing forth of Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) as the successor of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) on the Day of Ghadir. For example, one such narration, from Abu Sa’id Khudri, says,

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص لَمَّا نَزَلَتْ [عَلَیهِ‏] هَذِهِ الْآیةُ- قَالَ: اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ [عَلَى] إِكْمَالِ الدِّینِ وَ إِتْمَامِ النِّعْمَةِ، وَ رِضَا الرَّبِ‏ بِرِسَالَتِی‏ وَ وَلَایةِ عَلِی بْنِ أَبِی طَالِبٍ مِنْ بَعْدِی. ثُمَّ قَالَ: مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ فَعَلِی مَوْلَاهُ، اللَّهُمَّ وَالِ مَنْ وَالاهُ وَ عَادِ مَنْ عَادَاهُ- وَ انْصُرْ مَنْ نَصَرَهُ وَ اخْذُلْ مَنْ خَذَلَهُ

Shawahid al-Tanzil, Volume 1, Page 157, Narration 211.

Furthermore, Khatib Baghdadi cites a Sahih [authentic] narration from Abu Hurayrah that emphasizes this verse was revealed after the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) took Ali (AS)’s hand, up on the Day of Ghadir. The Prophet stated, “Am I not the possessor of authority over the Muslims? So whoever I possess authority over, Ali possesses authority over”. In this narration it has also been pointed out that Umar congratulated Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) on this occasion.

عن أبی هریرة قال من صام یوم ثمان عشرة من ذی الحجة كتب له صیام ستین شهرا و هو یوم غدیر خم لما أخذ النبی صلى الله علیه وسلم بید علی بن أبی طالب فقال ألست ولی المؤمنین قالوا بلى یا رسول الله قال من كنت مولاه فعلی مولاه فقال عمر بن الخطاب بخ بخ لك یا بن أبی طالب أصبحت مولای ومولى كل مسلم فأنز الله الیوم أكملت لكم دینكم

Tarikh Baghdadi , Volume 8, Page 284.

[27]

إِنَّ عَلِیاً مِنِّی وَ أَنَا مِنْهُ وَ هُوَ وَلِی كُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ مِنْ بَعْدِی‏

Sunni Sources: al-Musdarak alaa al-Sahihain, Volume 3, Page 110; al-Silsila al-Hadith al-Sahiyha (Albani), Volume 5, Page 222. Furthermore, Tirmidhi has referred to this narration in al-Jami’ al-Sahih, Bukhari in his Sahih, Mosuli in his Musnad, Khatib Baghdadi in al-Arbaeen, Ibn al-Athir in Jami’ al-Usul.

Shia Sources: This narration, and many similar narrations can be seen. For example:

یا عَلِی أَنْتَ مِنِّی وَ أَنَا مِنْكَ وَ أَنْتَ وَلِی كُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ بَعْدِی

Bihar al-Anwar , Volume 31, Page 430.

عَلِی أَخِی وَ وَزِیرِی وَ وَارِثِی وَ وَصِیی وَ خَلِیفَتِی فِی أُمَّتِی وَ وَلِی كُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ بَعْدِی ثُمَّ ابْنِی الْحَسَنُ ثُمَّ ابْنِی الْحُسَینُ ثُمَّ تِسْعَةٌ مِنْ وُلْدِ الْحُسَینِ وَاحِدٌ بَعْدَ وَاحِد

Kamal ad-Din, Volume 1, Page 277.

یا أَیهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّی تَارِكٌ فِیكُمُ الثَّقَلَینِ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَ عِتْرَتِی أَهْلَ بَیتِی فَتَمَسَّكُوا بِهِمَا لَا تَضِلُّوا ... أَوَّلُهُمْ أَخِی وَ وَزِیرِی وَ خَلِیفَتِی فِی أُمَّتِی وَ وَلِی كُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ وَ مُؤْمِنَةٍ بَعْدِی هُوَ أَوَّلُهُمْ ثُمَّ ابْنِی الْحَسَنُ ثُمَّ ابْنِی الْحُسَینُ ثُمَّ تِسْعَةٌ مِنْ وُلْدِ الْحُسَینِ وَاحِدٌ بَعْدَ وَاحِدٍ حَتَّى یرِدُوا عَلَی الْحَوْضَ شُهَدَاءُ لِلَّهِ فِی أَرْضِهِ وَ حُجَجُهُ عَلَى خَلْقِهِ وَ خُزَّانُ عِلْمِهِ وَ مَعَادِنُ حِكْمَتِهِ مَنْ أَطَاعَهُمْ فَقَدْ أَطاعَ اللَّهَ وَ مَنْ عَصَاهُمْ فَقَدْ عَصَى اللَّهَ

Al-Ihtijaj (by Tabarsi), Volume 1, Page 109.

[28] Refer to the previous footnote.

[29]

وَ أَنْتَ خَلیفَتِی فِی كُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ مِن بَعْدِی‏

Sunni Source : Al-Sunnah (by Ibn Abi Asim), Page 551.

وَ أَنْتَ خَلیفَتِی فِی كُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ و مُؤْمِنةٍ بَعْدِی

Shia Source : Isbat al-Hoda Ben-nosus wal-Mu’jezat, Volume 3, Page 290.

Numerous narrations with similar themes or wording can be found from the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) regarding the succession of Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) in Shia Sources. For example,

عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ع‏ ... خَلِيفَتِي عَلَى أَهْلِي وَ أُمَّتِي فِي حَيَاتِي وَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِي

meaning, “Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) … is my successor for my family and Ummah [nation], whether during my life or after my death”. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 28, Page 37-38.

Also take note of the following narration,

إِنَّهُ لا یَنْبَغِی أَنْ أَذْهَبَ إِلا وَأَنْتَ خَلِیفَتِی

meaning, “It is not suitable that I leave the people other than if you [oh Ali] become my successor”. Sunni Sources: al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, Volume 3, Page 133; al-Silsila al-Hadith al-Sahiha (Albani), Volume 5, Page 22. Shia Sources: Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 38, Page 242.

[30]

یكُونُ بَعْدِی اثْنَا عَشَرَ خَلِیفَة کلّهُم مِن قُرَیش.

Shia Sources: Uyun Akhbar ar-Ridha, Volume 1, Page 51; Sunni Sources: Halia al-Awliyaa (Abu Naeim), Dar al-Kitab al-Elmiya, Volume 1, Page 33; Mu’jam al-Kabir, Volume 2, Page 216; Kanz al-Ummal, Volume 12, Page 33.

In Sunni Sources, there are numerous narrations with similar wording and meaning that come from the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). For example:

لایزال الاسلام عزیزا الی اثنی عشر خلیفة، کلهم من قریش

Sahih Muslim , Kitab al-Imarah, Chapter 1, Hadith 7; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Volume 5, Page 90, 100, 106; Kanz al-Ummal, Volume 12, Page 32; Fath al-Bari, Volume 13, Page 211; Mishkat al-Masabih (Muhammad Omri Tabrizi), Hadith 5974; at-Taj al-Jami’ al-Usul fi al-Hadith ar-Rasool, Mansur Ali Nasef, Volume 3, Page 39.

یکون [من] بعدی اثنا عشر امیراً، کلهم من قریش

Sunan at-Tirmidhi, Kitab Fitan, Chapter 46, Hadith 1; Mu’jam al-Kabir, Volume 2, Page 214; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Volume 5, Page 92, 99; Kanz al-Ummal, Volume 12, Page 24; Tarikh Baghdad (Khatib Baghdadi), Volume 14, Page 353 and Volume 6, Page 263; at-Tarikh al-Kabir (Muhammad al-Bukhari Ju’fi); Volume 1, Page 446.

لایزال هذا الدین قائماً حتی یکون علیکم اثنا عشر خلیفة کلهم تجتمع علیه الامة. فسمعت کلاماً من النبی(ص) لم افهمه، قلت لاَبی ما یقول؟ قال: کلهم من قریش

Sunan ibn Dawud, Kitab al-Mahdi , Hadith 1; Tarikh al-Khulafa (Suyuti), Dar al-Qalam, Page 18; Dala'il al-Nubuwwah, Volume 6, Page 520; Fath al-Bari, Volume 13, Page 212.

یکون لهذه الامة اثنا عشر خلیفة

Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal , Volume 5, Page 106; Kanz al-Ummal, Volume 12, Page 33.

لایزال امر امتی صالحاً حتی یمضی اثنا عشر خلیفة، کلهم من قریش

Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain (Hakim Neyshabouri), Volume 3, Page 618.

لایزال هذا الامر عزیزاً یُنصرون علی من ناواهم علیه، اثنا عشر خلیفة، کلهم من قریش

Tarikh al-Khulafa (Suyuti), Page 10.

لایزال هذا الدین عزیزاً منیعاً الی اثنا عشر خلیفة، کلهم من قریش

Mu’jam al-Kabir , Volume 2, Page 195; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Volume 5, Page 99; Kanz al-Ummal, Volume 12, Page 32; Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Imarah, Chapter 1, Hadith 9.

[31]

إنّ خُلَفائی وأوصیائی وحُجَج اللَّه على الخَلْق بعدی اثْنَا عشَر، أوّلهم أخی، وآخِرهم وَلَدی. قیل: یا رسول اللَّه، ومَن أخوك؟ قال: علی بن أبی طالب. قیل: فَمَن وَلَدُك؟ قال: المَهدی الذی‏ یملأها قِسْطاً وعَدْلاً كما مُلئِت جَوراً وظُلْماً، والذی بَعثنی بالحقّ بشیراً، لو لم یبْقَ مِن الدُنیا إلّا یومٌ واحِد؛ لَطَوّل اللَّه ذلك الیوم حتّى یخرُج فیه وَلَدی ‏المَهدی، فینزِل روحُ اللَّه عیسى بن مَرْیم فیصَلّی‏ خَلْفَه، وتُشرِق الأرضُ بِنور رَبّها، ویبلُغ سُلطانه المَشرِقَ والمَغرِب

meaning, “‘Verily my successors and my executors and the Divine Proofs upon the people after me are 12 individuals. The first of them is my brother and the last is my son’. The people asked, ‘Oh Prophet of God, who is your brother?’. He stated, ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS)’. Then the people asked, ‘Who do you mean by your son?’. He stated, ‘Mahdi. The one that will fill the earth will justice and fairness, while it is filled with unfairness and oppression. I swear by the God that truly made me the bringer of glad tidings, if there is only one day remaining of the life of the earth, God will make that day so long until my son Mahdi appears on that day. Then Jesus the son of Mary (AS) will descend from the sky and will pray behind him. And the earth will be rained upon with the light of the Lord and his government will spread to the East and West of the world’”. Sunni Source: Fara’id al-Samtayn, Volume 2, Page 312, Hadith 562; Shia Source: Kamal ad-Din, Volume 1, Page 280.

[32]

إِنَّ وَصِيِّي وَ الْخَلِيفَةَ مِنْ بَعْدِي عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ وَ بَعْدَهُ سِبْطَايَ الْحَسَنُ وَ الْحُسَيْنُ تَتْلُوهُ‏ تِسْعَةٌ مِنْ صُلْبِ الْحُسَيْنِ أَئِمَّةٌ أَبْرَار ... إِذَا مَضَى الْحُسَيْنُ فَابْنُهُ عَلِيٌّ فَإِذَا مَضَى عَلِيٌّ فَابْنُهُ مُحَمَّدٌ فَإِذَا مَضَى مُحَمَّدٌ فَابْنُهُ جَعْفَرٌ فَإِذَا مَضَى جَعْفَرٌ فَابْنُهُ مُوسَى فَإِذَا مَضَى مُوسَى فَابْنُهُ عَلِيٌّ فَإِذَا مَضَى عَلِيٌّ فَابْنُهُ مُحَمَّدٌ ثُمّ اِبْنُهُ عَلِيٌّ ثُمّ اِبْنُهُ الْحَسَنُ ثُمّ اِبْنُهُ الْحُجَّةُ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ فَهَذِهِ اثْنَا عَشَرَ أئمّة عَدَدِ نُقَبَاءِ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيل

Sunni Sources: Fara’id al-Samtayn, Volume 2, Page 134, Hadith 431; With slightly different wording in: Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, Volume 3, Page 282. Shia Source: Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 36, Page 284.

[33]

فَأُوحِیَ إِلَیَّ فِی عَلِیٍّ بِثَلاثٍ: «أَنَّهُ إِمَامُ الْمُتَّقِینَ، وَسَیِّدُ الْمُسْلِمِینَ، وَقَائِدُ الْغُرِّ الْمُحَجَّلِینَ إِلَى جَنَّاتِ النَّعِیمِ»

Sunni Sources: Ma’rifat al-Sahabah, Volume 3, Page 1587; Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, Volume 3, Page 138; Shia Sources: Khisal (Saduq), Volume 1, Page 116; Numerous narrations exist with similar wording and meaning in Shia sources. For example:

عَهِدَ إِلَيَّ رَبِّي فِي عَلِيٍّ ع ثَلَاثَ‏ كَلِمَاتٍ فَقَالَ يَا مُحَمَّدُ فَقُلْتُ لَبَّيْكَ رَبِّي فَقَالَ إِنَّ عَلِيّاً إِمَامُ‏ الْمُتَّقِينَ‏ وَ قَائِدُ الْغُرِّ الْمُحَجَّلِينَ‏ وَ يَعْسُوبُ الْمُؤْمِنِين

Al-Amali (Saduq), Page 476.

[34]

الْأَئِمَّةُ مِنْ بَعْدِي اثْنَا عَشَرَ، أَوَّلُهُمْ أَنْتَ يَا عَلِيُّ، وَ آخِرُهُمُ الْقَائِمُ الَّذِي يَفْتَحُ اللَّهُ- تَعَالَى ذِكْرُهُ- عَلَى يَدَيْهِ مَشَارِقَ الْأَرْضِ وَ مَغَارِبَهَا

Sunni Sources: Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, Volume 3, Page 395; Shia Sources: Manaqib (Ibn Shahr Ashub), Volume 1, Page 298.

[35]

الْأَئِمَّةُ بَعْدِي الْهَادِي‏ عَلِيٌ‏ وَ الْمُهْتَدِي الْحَسَنُ وَ النَّاصِرُ الْحُسَيْنُ وَ الْمَنْصُورُ عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ وَ الشَّافِعُ‏ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ وَ النَّفَّاعُ جَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ الْأَمِينُ مُوسَى بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ وَ الرِّضَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُوسَى وَ الْفَعَّالُ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ وَ الْمُؤْتَمَنُ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ الْعَلَّامُ الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ وَ مَنْ يُصَلِّي خَلْفَهُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ ع الْقَائِمُ ع‏

Sunni Sources: Fara’id al-Samtayn, Volume 2, Page 153-154, Hadith 446; Shia Sources: Kamal ad-Din, Volume 1, Page 284; Furthermore, refer to Footnote 32. In that narration the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) also stated the names of the 12 Imams.

[36]

أَنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ نَصَبَهُ لَكُمْ وَلِيّاً وَ إِمَاماً مُفْتَرَضاً طَاعَتُهُ ... عَلَى كُلِّ مُوَحِّد

Al-Ihtijaj (by Tabarsi), Volume 1, Page 59.

[37]        

مَلْعونٌ مَنْ خالَفَهُ، مَرْحومٌ مَنْ تَبِعَهُ

ibid.

[38]

مِنْ بَعْدی عَلیًّ وَلِیُّکُمْ وَ إِمامُکُمْ بِأَمْرِالله رَبِّکُمْ، ثُمَّ الْإِمامَةُ فی ذُرِّیَّتی مِنْ وُلْدِهِ

ibid, Page 59-60.

[39]

وَما مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِلاّ وَقَدْ عَلَّمْتُهُ عَلِیّاً، وَ هُوَ الْإِمامُ الْمُبینُ

ibid, Page 60.

[40]

مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ لَا تَضِلُّوا عَنْهُ وَ لَا تَنْفِرُوا مِنْهُ وَ لَا تَسْتَكْبِرُوا [وَ لَا تَسْتَنْكِفُوا] مِنْ وَلَايَتِه

ibid.

[41]

هَذَا عَلِي‏ ... خَلیفَةُ رَسُولِ الله وَ أَمیرُالْمُؤْمِنینَ وَالْإمامُ الْهادی بِأَمْر الله

ibid, Page 61.

[42]

إِنَّما أَکْمَلَ الله عَزَّوَجَلَّ دینَکُمْ بِإِمامَتِهِ

ibid.

[43]

فَبایِعُوا الله وَ بایِعُونی وَبایِعُوا عَلِیّاً أَمیرَالْمُؤْمِنینَ وَالْحَسَنَ وَالْحُسَیْنَ وَالْأَئِمَّةَ مِنْهُمْ

Raudhah al-Muttaqin , Volume 13, Page 260. Also refer to: Al-Ihtijaj (by Tabarsi), Volume 1, Page 66.

[44]

مَنْ یُطِعِ الله وَ رَسُولَهُ وَ عَلِیّاً وَ الْأَئِمَةَ الَّذینَ ذَکرْتُهُمْ فَقَدْ فازَفَوْزاً عَظیماً (سوره احزاب، آیه 71)

Al-Ihtijaj (by Tabarsi), Volume 1, Page 66.

[45] Sunni Sources: Sharh al-Maqasid fi Ilm al-Kalam (Taftazani), Volume 2, Page 275; Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, Volume 3, Page 456; Naqz al-Uthmaniyah lil-Jahiz (Abu Ja’far Iskafi), Page 242, as narrated from Sahih Muslim (من مات ولا امام له مات ميتة جاهلية); Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Volume 4, Page 96; Majma al-Zawa’id (Haythami), Volume 5, Page 218; Musnad Abu Dawud, Page 252; Mu’jam al-Kabir (by Tabarani), Volume 19, Page 388; Al-Sunnah (Ibn Abi Asim), Volume 2, Page 503;

من مَاتَ وَلَيْسَ في عُنُقِهِ بَيْعَةٌ مَاتَ مَيْتَةً جَاهِلِيَّةً

meaning, “If the pledge of allegiance to an Imam is not upon someone’s neck and that person dies, they will have died the death ignorance”. Sahih Muslim, Volume 6, Page 22, Hadith 4686. Shia Sources: Kamal ad-Din, Volume 2, Page 409; al-Thaqib fi al-Manaqib, Page 495.

[46] Refer to Footnote 3.

[47]

إِنِّي‏ تَارِكٌ‏ فِيكُمُ‏ الثَّقَلَيْنِ‏ مَا إِنْ تَمَسَّكْتُمْ‏ بِهِمَا لَنْ تَضِلُّوا كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَ عِتْرَتِي أَهْلَ بَيْتِي- وَ إِنَّهُمَا لَنْ يَفْتَرِقَا حَتَّى يَرِدَا عَلَيَّ الْحَوْض‏

Wasa’il ash-Shia , Volume 27, Page 34.

This narration can be found in various Sunni works and sources from different chains of narrations and with different wordings, all from the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). For example:

انی تارک فیکم الثقلین، اولهما کتاب الله، فیه الهدی والنور، فتمسکوا بکتاب اللّه و خذوا به، فحث علیه ورغب فیه. ثم قال: واهل بیتی اذکرکم اللّه فی اهل بیتی، ثلاث مرات

Sunan ad-Darimi , Volume 2, Page 432; Sunan al-Kubra Bayhaqi, Volume 2, Page 148, and Volume 7 Page 30, and Volume 10, Page 114.

انی تارک فیکم ما ان تمسکتم به لن تضلوا بعدی، احدهما اعظم من الآخر، کتاب اللّه حبل ممدود من السماء الی الارض، وعترتی اهل بیتی، ولن یتفرقا حتی یردا علی الحوض، فانظروا کیف تخلفونی فیهما

Sunan at-Tirmidhi, Volume 5, Page 329; Kanz al-Ummal, Volume 1, Page 173; Tafsir ad-Durr al-Manthur, Volume 2, Page 60.

انی تارک فیکم الثقلین احدهما اکبر من الآخر، کتاب اللّه حبل ممدود من السماء الی الارض وعترتی اهل بیتی و انهما لن یفترقا حتی یردا علیّ الحوض

Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal , Volume 3, Page 14, and Volume 4, Page 371. Majma az-Zawa’id, Volume 9, Page 257. Tazhib Tarikh Dimashq, Volume 5, Page 439.

انی تارک فیکم خلیفتین، کتاب الله حبل ممدود ما بین السماء والارض، وعترتی اهل بیتی وانهما لن یتفرقا حتی یردا علیّ الحوض

Feyz al-Ghadir Manaawi , Volume 3, Page 14; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Volume 5, Page 182, 189; Majma al-Zawa'id, Volume 9, Page 162; Tafsir ad-Durr al-Manthur, Volume 2, Page 60.

انی تارک فیکم الثقلین کتاب الله واهل بیتی، وانهما لن یتفرقا حتی یردا علیّ الحوض

al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain , Volume 3, Page 148; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Volume 3, Page 17. Mu’jam as-Saghir Tabrani, Volume 1, Page 131; Mu’jam al-Kabir, Volume 5, Page 190 and 205.

امّا بعد، الا ایها الناس! فانما انا بشر یوشک ان یأتی رسول ربی فاجیب وانا تارک فیکم ثقلین؛ اوّلهما کتاب اللّه، فیه الهدی والنور، فخذوا بکتاب الله، واستمسکوا به، فحثّ علی کتاب اللّه ورغّب فیه. ثم قال: واهل بیتی اذکّرکم الله فی اهل بیتی. اذکّرکم الله فی اهل بیتی. اذکّرکم اللّه فی اهل بیتی

Sahih Muslim , Fada’il as-Sahaba, Hadith 36; Kanz al-Ummal, Hadith 37620; as-Sunan as-Saghir Bayhaqi, Volume 2, Page 212; Mu’jam al-Kabir, Volume 5, Page 183.

Furthermore, it can be found with similar wordings in many other Sunni Sources, such as:

-    Masabih al-Sunnah (al-Baghawi) Volume 2, Page 205.

-    Mishkat al-Masabih (Katib al-Tabrizi), Volume 2, Page 255.

-    Al-Fath al-Kabir (an-Nabhani), Volume 1, Page 352.

-    Zakhair ul-Uqba (Tabari), Page 16

-    Fara’id al-Samtayn, Volume 2, Page 268, Hadith 535.

-    Al-Musnad (Ahmad ibn Hanbal), Volume 5, Page 181.

-    Tarikh Dimashq (ibn Asakir), Volume 2, Page Page 36, hadith 524 and 545.

-    An-Nahaya (Ibn al-Athir), Volume 1, Page 155.

-    Tafsir ad-Durr al-Manthur, Volume 2, Page 60.

[48] Masak means skin, as well as the tissue that connects the skin to the flesh. Thus, when tamassok is used, it refers to holding fast similar to how skin sticks to flesh. Taken from the entry for al-Mask in Lisan al-Arab, Volume 10.

[49]

أَ تَدْرُونَ مَنِ الْمُتَمَسِّكُ بِهِ الَّذِي بِتَمَسُّكِهِ يَنَالُ هَذَا الشَّرَفَ الْعَظِيمَ هُوَ الَّذِي أَخَذَ الْقُرْآنَ وَ تَأْوِيلَهُ عَنَّا أَهْلَ الْبَيْت‏

meaning, “Do you know who is the person that is said to hold fast to the Quran? The person holds fast to this Glorious Quran that takes the Quran and its interpretation from the us, the Ahlul Bayt”. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 89, Page 182.

[50] For example, refer to:

إِنِّي تَارِكٌ فِيكُمُ الثَّقَلَيْنِ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَ عِتْرَتِي أَهْلَ بَيْتِي مَا إِنْ تَمَسَّكْتُمْ بِهِمَا لَنْ تَضِلُّوا وَ مَنْ تَمَسَّكَ بِعِتْرَتِي مِنْ بَعْدِي كَانَ مِنَ الْفَائِزِينَ وَ مَنْ تَخَلَّفَ عَنْهُمْ كَانَ مِنَ ... وَصِيِّي وَ خَلِيفَتِي مِنْ بَعْدِي عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ع ... يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَكَمْ يَكُونُ الْأَئِمَّةُ مِنْ بَعْدِكَ قَالَ عَدَدَ نُقَبَاءِ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ تِسْعَةٌ مِنْ صُلْبِ الْحُسَيْنِ ...قُلْتُ أَ فَلَا تُسَمِّيهِمْ لِي يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ نَعَمْ إِنَّهُ لَمَّا عُرِجَ‏ بِي إِلَى السَّمَاءِ وَ نَظَرْتُ إِلَى سَاقِ الْعَرْشِ فَرَأَيْتُ مَكْتُوباً بِالنُّورِ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ أَيَّدْتُهُ بِعَلِيٍّ وَ نَصَرْتُهُ بِهِ وَ رَأَيْتُ أَنْوَارَ الْحَسَنِ وَ الْحُسَيْنِ وَ فَاطِمَةَ وَ رَأَيْتُ فِي ثَلَاثَةِ مَوَاضِعَ عَلِيّاً عَلِيّاً عَلِيّاً وَ مُحَمَّداً وَ مُحَمَّداً وَ مُوسَى وَ جَعْفَراً وَ الْحَسَنَ وَ الْحُجَّةَ يَتَلَأْلَأُ مِنْ بَيْنِهُمْ كَأَنَّهُ كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّيٌّ فَقُلْتُ يَا رَبِّ مَنْ هَؤُلَاءِ الَّذِينَ قَرَنْتَ أَسْمَاءَهُمْ بِاسْمِكَ قَالَ يَا مُحَمَّدُ إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْأَوْصِيَاءُ وَ الْأَئِمَّةُ بَعْدَك‏

Kifayat al-Athar , Page 137.

أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي تَارِكٌ فِيكُمُ الثَّقَلَيْنِ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَ عِتْرَتِي أَهْلَ بَيْتِي فَتَمَسَّكُوا بِهِمَا لِئَلَّا تَضِلُّوا فَإِنَّ اللَّطِيفَ الْخَبِيرَ أَخْبَرَنِي وَ عَهِدَ إِلَيَّ أَنَّهُمَا لَنْ يَفْتَرِقَا حَتَّى يَرِدَا عَلَيَّ الْحَوْضَ فَقَامَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ وَ هُوَ شِبْهُ الْمُغْضَبِ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَ كُلُّ أَهْلِ بَيْتِكَ فَقَالَ لَا وَ لَكِنْ أَوْصِيَائِي مِنْهُمْ أَوَّلُهُمْ أَخِي وَ وَزِيرِي وَ وَارِثِي وَ خَلِيفَتِي فِي أُمَّتِي وَ وَلِيُّ كُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ مِنْ بَعْدِي هُوَ أَوَّلُهُمْ ثُمَّ ابْنِيَ الْحَسَنُ ثُمَّ ابْنِيَ الْحُسَيْنُ ثُمَّ تِسْعَةٌ مِنْ وُلْدِ الْحُسَيْنِ وَاحِدٌ بَعْدَ وَاحِدٍ حَتَّى يَرِدُوا عَلَيَّ الْحَوْضَ شُهَدَاءَ اللَّهِ فِي أَرْضِهِ وَ حُجَجَهُ عَلَى خَلْقِهِ وَ خُزَّانُ عِلْمِهِ وَ مَعَادِنُ حِكْمَتِهِ مَنْ أَطَاعَهُمْ أَطَاعَ اللَّهَ وَ مَنْ عَصَاهُمْ عَصَى اللَّه‏

Kamal ad-Din, Volume 1, Page 279.

[51]

لَيْسَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ أَحَدٌ أَفْضَلَ مِنِّي وَ أَخِي وَ وَزِيرِي وَ خَلِيفَتِي فِي أُمَّتِي وَ وَلِيُّ كُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ بَعْدِي - عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ‏ أَلَا إِنَّ أَخِي وَ خَلِيلِي وَ وَزِيرِي وَ صَفِيِّي وَ خَلِيفَتِي مِنْ بَعْدِي وَ وَلِيَّ كُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ وَ مُؤْمِنَةٍ بَعْدِي عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ‏ فَإِذَا هَلَكَ فَابْنِيَ الْحَسَنُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ فَإِذَا هَلَكَ فَابْنِيَ الْحُسَيْنُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ ثُمَّ الْأَئِمَّةُ [التِّسْعَةُ] مِنْ عَقِبِ الْحُسَيْنِ [هُمُ‏] الْهُدَاةُ الْمُهْتَدُونَ هُمْ مَعَ الْحَقِ‏ وَ الْحَقُّ مَعَهُمْ لَا يُفَارِقُونَهُ وَ لَا يُفَارِقُهُمْ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ هُمْ زِرُّ الْأَرْضِ الَّذِينَ تَسْكُنُ إِلَيْهِمُ الْأَرْضُ وَ هُمْ حَبْلُ اللَّهِ الْمَتِينُ وَ هُمْ عُرْوَةُ اللَّهِ الْوُثْقَى الَّتِي‏ لَا انْفِصامَ لَها وَ هُمْ حُجَجُ اللَّهِ فِي أَرْضِهِ وَ شُهَدَاؤُهُ عَلَى خَلْقِهِ وَ خَزَنَةُ عِلْمِهِ وَ مَعَادِنُ حِكْمَتِهِ وَ هُمْ بِمَنْزِلَةِ سَفِينَةِ نُوحٍ‏ مَنْ رَكِبَهَا نَجَا وَ مَنْ تَرَكَهَا غَرِق‏ ...

The Book of Sulaym ibn Qays al-Hilali, Volume 2, Page 734.

There are numerous narrations with similar wording and messages in other Shia Sources from the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). For example,

إِنَّ مَثَلَ أَهْلِ بَيْتِي فِي أُمَّتِي كَمَثَلِ سَفِينَةِ نُوحٍ فِي قَوْمِهِ مَنْ رَكِبَهَا نَجَا وَ مَنْ تَخَلَّفَ عَنْهَا غَرِق‏

Bihar al-Anwar , Volume 23, Page 119.

Furthermore, there are numerous narrations with similar wording and messages in Sunni Source. For example, refer to: Tafsir ad-Durr al-Manthur, Volume 3, Page 334. Tarikh Baghdad, Volume 12, Page 91. Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, Volume 4, Page 343; Mu’jam al-Kabir, Volume 3, Page 45-46, and Volume 12, Page 27; Kanz al-Ummal, Volume 12, Page 98; Majma az-Zawa’id, Volume 9, Page 265 and 269; Hilyat ul awliya, Volume 4, Page 306.

[52] In numerous narrations, the Seal of the Prophets stated that the meaning of Ahlul Bayt was his daughter Lady Fatimah (AS), Imam Ali (AS), and the Imams from their progeny. Referring to the Verse of Purification, he also clarified that the meaning of the Ahlul Bayt who God has made pure of all impurities are the Imams:

يَا عَلِيُّ هَذِهِ الْآيَةُ نَزَلَتْ فِيكَ وَ فِي سِبْطَيَّ وَ الْأَئِمَّةِ مِنْ وُلْدِك‏

meaning, “Oh Ali (AS), this verse was revealed about you and my grandsons (Hassan and Hussain, AS), and the Imams from your line”. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 36, Page 336.

This issue has also been referred to in Sunni Sources, such as: Manaqib al-Kharazmi, Page 23; Musnad Ahmad, Volume 1, Page 330-331, Tarikh Madinat al-Dimashq, Volume 42, Page 101-102, al-Badaaya wa an-Nahaya, Volume 7, Page 373-374.

[53] The Holy Quran, Surah al-Ahzab (33:33).

[54]

يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ اخْرُجْ فَنَادِ فِي النَّاسِ الصَّلَاةَ جَامِعَةً وَ اصْعَدِ الْمِنْبَرَ وَ قُمْ دُونَ مَقَامِي بِمِرْقَاةٍ وَ قُلْ لِلنَّاسِ أَلَا مَنْ عَقَّ وَالِدَيْهِ فَلَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ أَلَا مَنْ أَبَقَ مِنْ مَوَالِيهِ فَلَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ أَلَا مَنْ ظَلَمَ أَجِيراً أُجْرَتَهُ فَلَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ ... يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ أَلَا وَ إِنِّي وَ أَنْتَ أَبَوَا هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ فَمَنْ عَقَّنَا فَلَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ أَلَا وَ إِنِّي وَ أَنْتَ مَوْلَيَا هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ فَعَلَى مَنْ أَبَقَ عَنَّا لَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ أَلَا وَ إِنِّي وَ أَنْتَ أَجِيرَا هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ فَمَنْ ظَلَمَنَا أُجْرَتَنَا فَلَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْه‏‏

Bihar al-Anwar , Volume 40, Page 45.

Sunni Sources have also narrated from the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH),

حَقُّ عَلِيّ بن أبِی طالِب عَلَى هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ كَحَقِ‏ الْوَالِدِ عَلَى‏ الْوَلَد

Manaqib Kharazmi , Page 219. This narration can be found with similar wording and content in: Manaqib Kharazmi, Page 229; Fara’id al-Samtayn, Volume 1, Page 296-297, Hadith 234, 235.

[55]

... الْإِمَامُ الْأَنِيسُ الرَّفِيقُ وَ الْوَالِدُ الشَّفِيقُ وَ الْأَخُ الشَّقِيقُ وَ الْأُمُّ الْبَرَّةُ بِالْوَلَدِ الصَّغِيرِ وَ مَفْزَعُ الْعِبَادِ فِي الدَّاهِيَةِ النَّآدِ الْإِمَامُ أَمِينُ اللَّهِ فِي خَلْقِهِ وَ حُجَّتُهُ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ وَ خَلِيفَتُهُ فِي بِلَادِهِ وَ الدَّاعِي إِلَى اللَّهِ وَ الذَّابُّ عَنْ حُرَمِ اللَّهِ الْإِمَامُ الْمُطَهَّرُ مِنَ الذُّنُوبِ وَ الْمُبَرَّأُ عَنِ الْعُيُوبِ الْمَخْصُوصُ بِالْعِلْمِ الْمَوْسُومُ بِالْحِلْم‏ ...

meaning, “The Imam is a companion, friend, compassionate father, consanguine brother, twin, affectionate mother to the infant child, and the refuge of the servants of God during difficult tribulations. The Imam is the trust of God among His Creation, His proof upon His servants, His Caliph in His domain, the inviter towards Him, and defender of His rights. The Imam is pure from sins, away from defects, and is marked by special knowledge and righteousness”. Kafi(Published by Al-Islamia), Volume 1, Page 200.

[56]

لِلْإِمَامِ عَلَامَاتٌ ... أَشْفَقَ‏ عَلَيْهِمْ‏ مِنْ‏ آبَائِهِمْ وَ أُمَّهَاتِهِم

meaning, “There are signs for the Imam … [including] being more compassionate and affectionate for the people than their mothers and fathers”. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 25, Page 116-117.

[57] A person asked the Seal of the Prophets whether nursing his old mother would be proper compensation for her hard work during his youth. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) responded,

لَا وَ لَا بِزَفرَةٍ مِن زَفَرَاتِهَا

meaning, “No, you have not even compensated for one groan of her groans [while she was giving birth]”. Mustadrak al-Wasa’il, Volume 15, Page 200.

[58]

أَنَا وَ عَلِيٌّ أَبَوَا هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ وَ لَحَقُّنَا عَلَيْهِمْ أَعْظَمُ مِنْ حَقِّ أَبَوَيْ وِلَادَتِهِمْ فَإِنَّهَا نُنْقِذُهُمْ إِنْ أَطَاعُونَا مِنَ النَّارِ إِلَى دَارِ الْقَرَارِ وَ نَلْحَقُهُمْ مِنَ الْعُبُودِيَّةِ بِخِيَارِ الْأَحْرَار

Bihar al-Anwar , Volume 23, Page 259.

[59] Imam Sadiq (AS), the sixth Imam and successor to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), stated,

نَحْنُ كَهْفٌ لِمَنِ الْتَجَأَ إِلَيْنَا

meaning, “We are the refuge of the person that has taken refuge to us”. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 50, Page 299.

Imam Ridha (AS), the eighth Imam and successor to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), has also described the Imam as,

مَفْزَعُ الْعِبَادِ فِي الدَّاهِيَةِ النَّآد

meaning, “The Imam is the refuge of servants when they have nowhere to go while afflicted with deadly calamities”. Kafi(Published by Al-Islamia), Volume 1, Page 200.

[60] Numerous examples exist of the Ahlul Bayt (AS) giving refuge to their enemies and opponents. For example, Marwan (an Umayyad ruler) was the person that had rebelled against Imam Ali (AS) and instigated a group of people to go to war against him. During the time of Imam Hassan (AS), the second Imam, he continued to oppose the Ahlul Bayt and harass them, to the point that he caused a group to shoot arrows at Imam Hassan’s (AS) lifeless body. Then during the time of Imam Hussain (AS), the third Imam, he put every effort to try to force the Imam to give allegiance to a corrupt and oppressive ruler (Yazid). Despite all of this, when during the time of Imam Sajjad (AS), the fourth Imam, he had lost hope in help from his friends, he entrusted the Imam to protect his family from the fury of people that were rebelling against him. Imam Sajjad (AS) accepted this and protected Marwan’s family. Refer to: Muntahi al-Amal, Chapter 6, Section 2, Page 584.

[61] Refer to the following:

The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) stated,

أَنَا مَدِينَةُ الْعِلْمِ وَ عَلِيٌّ بَابُهَا وَ هَلْ تُدْخَلُ الْمَدِينَةُ إِلَّا مِنْ بَابِهَا

meaning, “I am the city of Ilm, and Ali (AS) is its gate. How can the city be entered but through its gate?”. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 10, Page 120.

In Sunni Sources a similar narration can be seen. For example,

أَنَا مَدِينَةُ الْعِلْمِ‏ وَ عَلِيٌّ بَابُهَا فَمَنْ‏ أَرَادَ الْعِلْمَ فَلْيَأْتِ الْبَاب

meaning, “I am the city of Ilm, and Ali (AS) is its gate. Whoever wants Ilm must enter from its gate”. Manaqib ibn al-Mughazili, Page 80-84 and also Page 85; Also refer to: Manaqib al-Kharazmi, Page 40, 130; Fara'id al-Samtayn, Volume 1, Page 98, Hadith 67, and Page 360, Hadith 286, and Page 361, Hadith 286; Sharh Nahj al-Balagha (by Ibn Abi’l-Hadid), Volume 9, Page 165.

مَا مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِلَّا وَ قَدْ أَحْصَاهُ اللَّهُ فِيَّ وَ كُلُّ عِلْمٍ عَلِمْتُ فَقَدْ أَحْصَيْتُهُ فِي إِمَامِ الْمُتَّقِينَ وَ مَا مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِلَّا عَلَّمْتُهُ عَلِيّاً وَ هُوَ الْإِمَامُ الْمُبِين

meaning, “There is no Ilm other the that which God has inscribed within me. And I have recorded all of the Ilm within me inside Ali (AS), the Imam of Righteous, and there is no Ilm other than which I have taught Ali (AS)”. Al-Ihtijaj (by Tabarsi), Volume 1, Page 60.

هُمْ‏ مَوْضِعُ‏ سِرِّهِ‏ وَ لَجَأُ أَمْرِهِ وَ عَيْبَةُ عِلْمِهِ وَ مَوْئِلُ حُكْمِهِ وَ كُهُوفُ كُتُبِه‏‏

meaning, “They (the Ahlul Bayt) are the location of God’s secrets, the refuge of his command, the vessel of his Ilm, the reference of his decrees, and the place of the protection of his books”. Nahj al-Balagha (Subhi Saleh numbering), Page 47.

[62]

سَلُونِي قَبْلَ أَنْ تَفْقِدُونِي‏

Shia Sources: Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 10, Page 119. Sunni Sources: Sharh Nahj al-Balagha (by Ibn Abi’l-Hadid), Volume 2, Page 286.

[63] ibid

[64]

لِلْإِمَامِ عَلَامَاتٌ‏ يَكُونُ أَعْلَمَ النَّاسِ وَ أَحْكَمَ النَّاسِ وَ أَتْقَى النَّاسِ وَ أَحْلَمَ النَّاسِ وَ أَشْجَعَ النَّاسِ وَ أَسْخَى النَّاسِ وَ أَعْبَدَ النَّاسِ

Bihar al-Anwar , Volume 25, Page 116.

[65] For example, Muawiya was one of Imam Ali (AS)’s most staunch enemies. One day, a man came to flatter him, and called Imam Ali (AS) a stingy person. Muawiya angrily responded,

وَيْحَك‏ ... لَوْ مَلَكَ بَيْتاً مِنْ تِبْرٍ وَ بَيْتاً مِنْ تِبْنٍ لَأَنْفَدَ تِبْرُهُ قَبْلَ تِبْنِهِ وَ هُوَ الَّذِي كَانَ يَكْنُسُ بُيُوتَ الْأَمْوَالِ وَ يُصَلِّي فِيهَا وَ هُوَ الَّذِي قَالَ يَا صَفْرَاءُ وَ يَا بَيْضَاءُ غُرِّي غَيْرِي‏

meaning, “Woe be on you … if Ali had a storehouse full of gold and another storehouse full of straw, first he would give away the gold, then the straw. He is the person that gives away all of the treasury [Imam Ali, AS, was the leader of the Muslim Government at that time] and then goes to the location of the treasury, which seems like it has been swept, and prays. Then he says, ‘Oh yellow and white (gold and silver), trick someone other than Ali’”. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 41, Page 144. Sunni Sources: Sharh Nahj al-Balagha (by Ibn Abi'l-Hadid), Volume 1, Page 22.

Another example of the enemies of the Ahlul Bayt confessing about their character was the confession of a government officer to Imam Javad’s (AS), the ninth Imam and successor the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), Hilm and Ilm. Source: Al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah, ibn Hajar Haythami, Page 205.

[66] God is most knowing of where He places His message. The Holy Quran, Surah al-An’am Verse 124.

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